The volume is the result of the ninth annual University of Chicago Oriental Institute Postdoc Seminar, held on March 16-17, 2013. Twenty scholars specialized in the Old and New World from all over Europe and the U.S. came together to find new approaches in the study of households in complex societies. The papers in this volume present case studies from the Near East, Egypt and Nubia, the Classical World, and Mesoamerica, including three comparative responses from the perspective of the different disciplines. By combining the archaeology record, scientific data, and written documents, the papers examine and contextualize different approaches and techniques in uncovering household behavior from the material record and discuss their suitability for the respective region and site. Building on the methodological groundwork laid out in a number of recent publications on household archaeology, the volume contributes to the methodological and theoretical discussion, expands on the topics of society, identity, and ethnicity in household studies, and opens up new avenues of research such as the perception of space in this innovative field. At the same time the papers reveal problems and disparities with which household archaeology is still struggling. It is hoped that the variety of case studies presented in this volume will further inspire the interested reader to establish new research agendas and excavation strategies that contribute to the development of the field in the various regions covered in the different papers and beyond.