Meccan Gods, Jesus’ Divinity: An Analysis of Sura 43 (al-Zukhruf)

This chapter illustrates the cogent theological objections to Muhammad’s teaching raised by his opponents. It suggests that the initial preaching of Muhammad in sura 19 was bereft of any polemical Jesus material and, more importantly, that sura 43 was the setting for the response of Muhammad against the Meccans reuse of his Jesus preaching to defend their own gods. The chapter considers the most interesting defense of the gods of the Meccans against Muhammad’s teachings. Muhammad, the Meccans were implying, is not a prophet like the others he keeps referring to; he has no standing in front of his God. The Meccans were raising a trenchant theological critique based on Muhammad’s own teachings. The Meccans were offering their own understanding of Muhammad, challenging his positioning of himself in a unique role, one with access to God. The Meccans were worthy theological opponents of Muhammad.



  • H. Zellentin

Publication Type

Book Name

The Qur’an’s Reformation of Judaism and Christianity