Self-Presentation in the Twelfth Dynasty and the Late Middle Kingdom

American University in Cairo Press, Cairo

First paragraph

The written material on self-presentation from the Twelfth Dynasty comprises largely short non-narrative phrases-the so-called epithets that officials used to describe themselves, their qualities, circumstances, and behavior toward their fellow men. The locations of these phrases would indicate that they were meant to be read-or heard-by future passersby. The latter could be visitors in the funerary chapels of the great necropolis of Elephantine, Assiut, Meir, Deir el-Bersheh, or Beni Hasan. The other major sites with this material were Abydos as well as mining and quarrying areas. The proliferation of such texts in the Middle Kingdom allowed for a higher number of individuals heralding their personal virtues. From local magnates in their magnificent tombs to middle-ranking officials sent on royal missions or recounting their success at the court, this increase was a contrast from the Old Kingdom, when the majority of texts came from high court officials.


  • H. Bassir

Publication Type

Book Name

Living Forever: Self-Presentation in Ancient Egypt