Miguel Ángel Andrés-Toledo

FEZANA Professor of Zoroastrian Languages and Literatures
Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, 4 Bancroft Avenue, Room 329, Toronto, ON, M5S 1C1


Fields of Study

Areas of Interest

  • Old and Middle Iranian Languages and Literatures
  • Zoroastrianism
  • Avestan and Pahlavi textual criticism
  • Manuscript studies
  • Iranian lexicography
  • Indo-Iranian linguistics
  • Indo-European linguistics


Miguel Ángel Andrés-Toledo is the FEZANA Professor in Zoroastrian Languages and Literatures at the NMC Department of the University of Toronto. He has worked on ten international projects in the fields of Old and Middle Iranian languages and literatures, Zoroastrianism, and Indo-Iranian linguistics, like for instance the Avestan Digital Archive (University of Salamanca) or the Middle Persian Dictionary Project (Hebrew University of Jerusalem). His research interests mainly cover the Avestan and Pahlavi languages and literatures, with a specific focus on the Pahlavi translations and exegesis of Avestan texts and their written transmission.

He has previously held academic positions at the University of Salamanca, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, University of Copenhagen, and Free University of Berlin. Among other publications, he is the author of the monographs El hilo de la vida y el lazo de la muerte en la tradición indoirania [The thread of life and the noose of death in the Indo-Iranian tradition] (2010. Valencia, Spain) and The Zoroastrian Law to Expel the Demons: Wīdēwdād 10-15. Critical Edition, Translation and Glossary of the Avestan and Pahlavi Texts (2016. Wiesbaden, Germany).


  • “Valued and Invaluable: Av. aspərəna-.” In: A. Cantera, M. Macuch & N. Sims-Williams (eds.). The Reward of the Righteous. Festschrift in Honor of Almut Hintze. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden: 13–30. (2022).  
  • “Table Manners and Ritual in Ammianus’ Persian Excursus (Amm. 23.6.80).” In: J. A. González Iglesias & J. Méndez Dosuna & B. Prósper (eds). Curiositas nihil recusat. Studia Isabel Moreno dicata. Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca: 45–54. (2021)
  • “Fighting Evil: The Lists of Demons of the Wīdēwdād.” In: A. Shayeste Doust (ed.). Dādestān ī dēnīg. Festschrift for Mahmoud Jaafari-Dehaghi. Tehran, Center for the Great Islamic Encyclopedia: 7–31. (2021)
  • “Arch-demons of the Zoroastrian Pandemonium”. In: A. Falero & D. Doncel Abad (eds.). Eurasia. Avances de investigación. Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca: 85–93. (2021)
  • “Manuscripts of the Zoroastrian short liturgies at the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute”. In: Sh. Farridnejad (ed.). Zaraϑuštrōtəma. Zoroastrian and Iranian Studies in Honour of Philip G. Kreyenbroek. Ancient Iran Series 10. Samuel Jordan Center for Persian Studies and Culture, University of California, Irvine: 5-50.  (2020)
  • “Socio-religious Division in the Indo-Iranian Investiture with the Sacred Girdle”. En: C. Redard, J. J.Ferrer-Losilla, H. Moein & Ph. Swennen (eds.). Aux sources des liturgies indo-iraniennes. Presses Universitaires de Liège, Liège: 345–355. (2020)
  • “Sassanian Splendor”. National Geographic History vol. 5, no. 6: 26–39. (2020)
  • “Avestan kinship terms and the ninefold division of the Avestan family.” In: B. Nielsen Whitehead, B. A. Olsen & J. Bahs Jacquet (eds.). Kin, Clan and Community in Indo-European Society. Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European, vol. 9. Museum Tusculanum Press, Charlottenlund, Denmark: 219–232. (2020)
  • “Riddles in Ancient Indian and Iranian Religious Disputes”. In: F. Ruani & M. Timuş (eds.). Quand les dualistes polémiquaient: zoroastriens et manichéens. Orient & Méditerranée 34. Peeters, Paris: 83–100. (2020)
  • “Avestan and Vedic Dress Codes on the Sacred Girdle.” In: S. Gaspa & M. Vigo (eds.). Textiles in Ritual and Cultic Practices in the Ancient Near East from the Third to the First Millennium BC. Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Band 431. Ugarit Verlag, Münster: 251–259. (2019)
  • “Ritual Competence and Liability of Minors in ancient Zoroastrianism: on Av. dahmō.kərəta- and śiiaoϑnāuuarəz-”. In: A. Hinzte, D. Durkin-Meisterernst & C. Naumann (eds.). A Thousand Judgements: Festschrift for Maria Macuch. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden: 1–12. (2019)
  • “El imperio sasánida.” Historia National Geographic 172: 60–73. (2018)
  • “Food and Clothing: a Mesopotamian and Indo-European Formula”. In: M. García Sánchez & M. Gleba (eds.). Vetus textrinum. Textiles in the Ancient World. Studies in honour of Carmen Alfaro Giner. Col.lecció Instrumenta 59. Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona: 45–53. (2018)
  • “Sasanian Exegesis of Avestan Textile Terms.” In: S. Gaspa, M. L. Nosch & C. Michel (eds.). Textile Terminologies from the Orient to the Mediterranean and Europe, 1000 BC to 1000 AD. Zea E-Books, University of Nebraska: 397–403. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/zeabook/56 (2017)
  • “The description of Anāhitā’s attire in the Yašt 5.” In: C. Brøns & M.-L. Nosch (eds.). Textiles and Cult in the ancient Mediterranean. Ancient Textile Series 31, Oxbow Books, Oxford: 179–188. (2017)
  • “Vedic, Avestan and Greek sunrise: The dawn of an Indo-European formula.” In: B. S. S. Hansen, A. Hyllested, A. R. Jørgensen, G. Kroonen, J. H. Larsson, B. Nielsen Whitehead, Th. Olander & T. M. Søborg (eds.). Usque ad radices. Indo-European Studies in Honor of Birgit Anette Olsen. Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European, vol. 8. Museum Tusculanum Press, Copenhagen: 15–24. (2017)
  • “Indo-Iranian Weavers of Old and New Hymns.” In: G. Fanfani, M. Harlow & M. L. Nosch (eds.). Spinning Fates and the Song of the Loom: The Use of Textiles, Clothing and Cloth Production as Metaphor, Symbol and Narrative Device in Greek and Latin Literature. Oxbow Books, Oxford: 17-23 (2016)
  • “Shrouds in Ancient Zoroastrian Funerary Practices.” In: J. Ortiz, C. Alfaro, L. Turell & M. J. García (eds.). Purpureae Vestes V. Textiles, Basketry and Dyes in the ancient Mediterranean World. Universidad de Valencia, Valencia: 129–136. (2016)
  • “Technical and Symbolic Study of two Complete Mediaeval Cloths found in Carrión de los Condes, Spain.”, co-authored with Borrego Díaz, P., Saladrigas Cheng, S. In: J. Ortiz, C. Alfaro, L. Turell & M. J. García (eds.). Purpureae Vestes V. Textiles, Basketry and Dyes in the ancient Mediterranean World. Universidad de Valencia, Valencia: 163–170. (2016)
  • “Phonograms and Logograms in the Middle Persian Textile Terminology.” In: S. Lervad, P. Flemestad & L. Weilgaard (eds.). Verbal and Nonverbal Representation in Terminology. Proceedings of the TOTh Workshop 2013 – Copenhagen – 8 November 2013 / Actes de la Journée d'étude TOTh 2013 – Copenhague – 8 novembre 2013. DNRF’s Centre for Textile Research & Institut Porphyre, Copenhagen – Paris. (2016)
  • “Ceremonies in the Xorde Avesta Manuscripts: the Drōn Frawardīn Yašt.” In: A. Cantera & J. J. Ferrer-Losilla (eds.). Estudios Iranios y Turanios. at̰cit̰ bā nəmō haomāi. Homenaje a Éric Pirart en su 65º aniversario. Sociedad de Estudios Iranios y Turanios (SEIT), Girona: 29–41. (2015)
  • “Primary Sources: Avestan and Pahlavi.” In: M. Stausberg & Y. Vevaina (eds.). The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism. John Wiley & Sons: 519–528 (modern Persian translation in A. Bahrāmi (1398/2019). راهنمای پژوهش‌های زردشتی.  Farhang mu’āsir, Tehran). (2015)
  • “Textiles in Zoroastrianism.” In: C. Alfaro, J. Ortiz García & M. J. Martínez García (eds.). Luxury and Dress. Political Power and Appearance in the Roman Empire and its Provinces. Universidad de Valencia, Valencia: 23–30. (2013)
  • “The Dog(s) of the Zoroastrian Afterlife.” In: É. Pirart (ed.). Le sort des Gâthâs. Études iraniennes in memoriam Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin, Acta Iranica 54, Liège: 13–23. (2013)
  • “Visions zoroàstriques del més enllà: el mag Kirdīr.” In: C. Padilla & J. Redondo (eds.). El sobrenatural a les literatures mediterrànies des de l’època clàssica fins a les societats actuals. Adolf M. Hakkert, Amsterdam: 11-27. (2012) 
  • “A Revision of Geldner’s Critical Edition.” In: A. Cantera (ed.). The Transmission of the Avesta. Iranica 20. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden: 433–438. (2012)
  • “Manuscripts of the Wīdēwdād.” In: A. Cantera (ed.). The Transmission of the Avesta. Iranica 20. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden: 207–243. (2012)
  • “Yamaśeda and Astiguhādayama.” In S. Azarnouche & C. Redard (eds.). Yama / Yima: variations indo-iraniennes sur la geste mythique. Institut de civilisation indienne, Collège de France,  Paris: 17–27. (2012)
  • “Parallel Versions of Vīdēvdād 11.” Iranian Studies 45.2: 181–201. (2012)
  • “Some Considerations about Vedic, Avestan and Indoiranian Textile Terminology.” In: C. Michel & M. L. Nosch (eds.). Textile Terminologies in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean from the Third to the First Millennia BC. Ancient Textile Series Vol. 8, Oxbow Books, Oxford: 430–444. (2010)
  • “The Indoiranian Noose of Death.” In: É. Pirart & T. Tremblay (eds.). Zarathushtra entre l’Inde et l’Iran. Études indo-iraniennes et indo-européennes offertes à Jean Kellens à l’occasion de son 65e anniversaire. Reichert, Wiesbaden: 1–16. (2009)
  • “The transmission of the Pahlavi Vīdēvdād in India after 1700 (I): Jāmāsp's visit from Iran and the rise of a new exegetical movement in Surat.”, co-authored with Cantera, A. Journal of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute 68: 81–142. (2008)
  • Jahī-: la prostituta en los textos zoroástricos.” In: C. Alfaro & Á. Aleixandre (eds.). Espacios de Infertilidad y Agamía en la Antigüedad. SEMA VII-VIII. Universidad de Valencia, Valencia: 171–202. (2007)
  • “Los acertijos indoiranios: cuestiones de vida o muerte (II). El Mādayān ī Yōšt ī Friyān.”, co-authored with Cantera, A., In: G. del Olmo Lete, Ll. Feliu & A. Millet Albà (eds.). Šapal tibnim mû illakū, Studies presented to Joaquín Sanmartín on the Occassion of His 65th Birthday. Aula Orientalis Supplementa 22. AUSA, Barcelona: 69–108. (2006)
  • “El prototipo de mujer en la épica india: Sita en el Ramayana de Valmiki.” In: C. Alfaro & M. García & M. Alamar (eds.). Actas del Tercer y Cuarto Seminarios de Estudios sobre la Mujer en la Antigüedad (SEMA III-IV). Universidad de Valencia, Valencia: 15–30. (2002)



PhD, University of Salamanca